Uzbekistan sovereign democratic republic
Form of government presidential
State territory of Uzbekistan is 447,400 sq km. Extension from north to south 930 km, from west to east 1425 km.
Total border extension 6221 km.
Population 25 million people
Geographical situation. Uzbekistan occupies the vast area in the middle of Central Asia, mainly, between two major rivers, the Syr-Darya and the Amu-Darya. It borders five states: Kyrghyzstan on the northeast, Kazakhstan on the north and northwest, Turkmenistan în the southwest; Tajikistan – on the southeast; the small part Afghanistan on the south.
Nature. Republic is amazing with its natural contrast. Monotonous dull deserts and high snow-covered mountains. Abounding rivers and extraordinary waterless areas. Mountains and foothills form approximately 1/5 part of republic's territory. The highest mountain point 4643 m. Big troughs range between mountains: Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya, Zerafshan. The largest intermountain trough is Ferghana valley 370 km long, the width reaches 190 km. From three sides it is surrounded with mountain ranges and it is open only from the west.
Rivers of Uzbekistan are formed mainly due to the thawing of seasonal snow. The largest rivers, crossing the territory of Uzbekistan Amu-Darya and Syr-Darya originate from the outer parts of the country. Amudarya, within the bounds of Uzbekistan comes with its middle and lower current parts. Zeravshan River is its biggest inflow on the territory of Uzbekistan. Syr-Darya is the second largest water-bearing river in Central Asia. Its largest inflow within the bounds of Uzbekistan is the river Chirchik. The middle of its current runs through the territory of Uzbekistan.
Lakes on the territory of Uzbekistan are few, not too large and irregularly spread. The largest Aral Sea within the bounds of Uzbekistan comes with its southern parts. The second largest lake in Uzbekistan Aydarkul, located in Kyzyl Kum desert. Considerable quantity of lakes is in highlands at a height of 2000-3000 m.
Flora. The complex relief of republic causes a variety of a vegetative cover. Flora of Uzbekistan has more than 3700 kinds of plants. No less than 20 % of kinds are endemics, i.e. one cannot face it anywhere else; most of them grow in mountains. Flora of steppes and deserts is unusually interesting consisting of few, but original kind of bushes. Scattered on dunes, covered by sand, rough, knotty, bent and broken by winds, with fine leaves or absolutely leafless, represent some kind of a steppe wood, but wood without a shadow and coolness. Fastening a sandy ground with multi-meter roots, steppe brushwood prevent it from being blown by winds and forming loose mobile sand.
Fauna. It was formed in complete conformity with flora and is characterized by resources of specific structure. Best runners live in deserts of Uzbekistan. Even, rather slowly moving animals, such as hedgehogs, presented in desert as big-eared and long-prickled kinds, have extremities notably longer, than European ones. The birds of desert have got ability for fast running on the ground (pretty-bustard) or for a prompt flight. The lizards adapt to fast movement not only thanks to lengthened extremities, but also tail.
Climate. Country is located far away from the oceans and other natural reservoirs. That is why climate here is hot, extremely arid, and sharply continental, which is expressed in big contrasts of day and night, summer and winter temperatures. Dryness, plenty of warmth and sunshine within a year are typical for this region.
People. Uzbekistan is the most populated republic of Central Asia (60%). Aboriginal population of Uzbekistan is Uzbeks. The Uzbeks in anthropological meaning are nation of mixed origin, for the most part europeoids with mongoloid components. Other major nationalities are Karakalpaks, Tajiks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, Tatars and others. Among European nations there are Russians, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Greeks, Germans and Caucasians.
Ethnogeny of Uzbeks has shaped in Central Asia and neighboring regions, interacting with other peoples of Central Asia, such as the Sogds, the Bactrians, the Saks and other tribes. But the name “uzbek” appeared later.
The language belongs to Turkic group; it is official language of Uzbeks, living in Uzbekistan. Variety of dialects is explained by the variegated structure of ethnic groups, taken part in forming of Uzbek nation. In XV century, thank to the efforts and work of Alisher Navoi, old-uzbek language has become official literary language along with Persian. Its norms and rules have been preserved until the end of XIX century. At the beginning of XX century the language was simplified and as a result it became easier to learn and more comprehensible.
Uzbek ethnos, until 1927, has used Arabic alphabet (until 1923 traditional, after reformed), in 1927-38s latinized, since 1939 alphabet, drawn on the base of Russian graphics (Cyrillic alphabet), from 1994 it has started to change to Roman letters.
Uzbek language has the status of official language of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Religion. During thousands of years Central Asia has been the center of meetings and co-existence of different religions. The religions were the power, uniting countries and continents, regardless of their nationalities and races.
Predominant religion in Uzbekistan
is Islam. Uzbeks are sunni muslims of hanafi persuasion. There is an Islamic University founded in 1999 and a Muslim Board of Uzbekistan
Orthodoxy came to the region with the Russians. Many other Christian denominations are represented in Tashkent
and in other big administrative centers. Among them are Catholics, Protestants and Baptists. There are also local Jewish communities in Tashkent
, Samarkand Bukhara
Public holidays 2004: New Year - January 1; Qurban Eid - February 2; Women’s Day - March 8, Navruz - 20-22; Remembrance Day - May 9; Independence Day - September 1; Teachers’ Day - October 1; Constitution Day - December 8.
Money: National Uzbek currency is “sum” (UZS). There are 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 sum bills and 1,5,10 and 25 sum coins. US dollars, Euro, UK pound sterling and Japan yens are exchanged at any exchange-office in hotels or banks. Only larger hotels take credit cards.
Electricity: Uzbekistan runs on 220 volt, 50Hz AC with twin round plug.